MSI performs detailed torsional and lateral rotordynamics analyses using finite element techniques as well as established rotordynamics programs to determine torsional natural frequencies and lateral critical speeds of rotating equipment such as pumps, compressors, fans, turbines, and other turbo-machines. If torsional natural frequencies or lateral critical speeds of the rotating components align themselves with potential excitation sources generated by the operation of the equipment, and if little damping is present, severe rubbing or shaft failure can occur. In addition to predicting the natural frequencies and critical speeds of the rotating shafting, stress and deflections can be computed via forced response analyses to assess whether the stresses and/or deflections resulting from the excitations can be safely tolerated by the equipment or if severe damage or fatigue failure will occur. In such cases, design changes will be recommended to shift natural frequencies and/or critical speeds away from the potential excitation frequencies with sufficient separation margin to avoid resonance during operation. API and Hydraulic Institute standards are often used as guidelines for performing the torsional and lateral rotordynamics analyses.